奉天省造币厂是目前我国历史最悠久的造币厂,主要生产流通硬币、金银纪念币等。光绪二十二年(1896年),清政府根据盛京(今沈阳市)将军依克唐阿的奏请,批准设立并筹建奉天机器局以铸造机制银币,并从德国进口锅炉和以蒸汽机为动力的整套铸币机器。光绪二十三年(1897年)奉天机器局成立。光绪二十六年(1900年)至二十八年(1902年)“奉天机器局”被沙俄军强占、破坏。光绪二十八年(1902年),经盛京将军增祺向俄方交涉,方将机器局交还奉天当局,后将机器局与造币厂分开,设立奉天制造银元总局,对残损机器进行重新修复,于光绪二十九年(1903年)恢复生产,因市面上资金紧缺,周转困难,故此际铸造的银元不再是元、角、分,而是以库平两、钱、分、厘为纪重单位。著名的“奉天省造癸卯光绪元宝库平银一两”银币,俗称“奉天一两”就是在此年铸造,但当时只铸了极少的样币,没公开流通于世,以至于现在成了举世罕见的大珍品。

 

  清朝银币在不同的时期有不同的版式,最早的7.3钱、7.2钱、一两、半两、3.6钱、1.44钱等,到清朝后期主要有7.2钱、3.6钱、1.44钱等。后期的银币在兑换时比较方便。清朝早期的一两银元是45毫米版本,后期的为43毫米版本,版本转换时间应在1903年之后。其中“奉天一两”银币我们知道它生产于1903年,但它的模板的设计要早于1903年,而且设计的图案也是基于早期的45毫米版本去设计的,而1902年奉天造币厂修复机器时引进的新模具为43毫米版本,原先设计的背面钢模直径太大无法使用,在试制银元时借用了其它厂的7.2钱版本的旧钢模,我们所见到的“奉天一两”的背面龙鳞图案都模糊不清的原因可能就是如此。由于原先按45毫米版设计的背面图案龙图很大,直径约31.5毫米,“FEN-TIEN PROVINCE ONE TAEL”分在两边占据约4.9毫米的直径,边缘占据约2.4毫米。如果各图案之间没有任何空隙的话,43毫米的直径勉强可以挤的下。于是权宜之计采用了七钱二分版的背面钢模代替,这样制作出来的银元正面比较漂亮,但背面剩余空间较大,显得稀疏凋零,不美观,不理想。

 

  “奉天一两”的正面设计非常精美,字体的高低是根据书写时墨迹的厚薄设计的。既然制造43毫米版本银币不美观,制币试验时自然会想到能否将其用在39毫米七钱二分的版面上,背面采用标准的七钱二分模板,但由于图案是根据45毫米版本设计的,制造出的试验币虽然背面标准,但正面显得拥挤不堪,连边缘都不完整。这就是台湾鸿禧美术馆藏品的尊荣,此币是目前我国钱币在世界拍卖会上价格最高的银元。

 

  所以,通过以上我们可以得知,“奉天一两”并非孤品,它至少有三个版本:45毫米版、43毫米版和39毫米版。其中早期的45毫米版只可能是样币,背面应该非常清晰,而其正面文字设计字体的高低是根据书写时墨迹的厚薄设计的。今天我们所赏析的这枚银币,便系光绪二十九年奉天省造币厂铸造的45毫米版本“奉天一两”,该币四周由112个环装圈点组成,正面上镌“奉天省造”四字,中间镌“光绪元宝”四字,左右镌“癸卯”二字(1903年为癸卯年),下面镌“库平银一两”五字,正中为满文“光绪元宝”字样。该币背面内圈镌反身蟠龙,造型很大,四爪有力,目视龙珠,外圈镌英文省名“奉天省”,其左侧处有一老坑,上段边齿旁有模具挤压形成的印痕,两旁各镌一六瓣花星。

  此银币因系45毫米版本的“奉天一两”,各个细节非常清晰且非常美观。正面楷体“光绪元宝”根据书写时墨迹的厚薄设计而成,故其笔锋、笔顺是无法模拟的,现在我们所见到的伪品,大多是根据沈阳造币厂发行的纪念币仿造的,正面字体在许多细枝末节上与真品存在着差异。背面“葵卯”中的卯字设计为卯字不出头(参照江南癸卯卯字不出头款),另因时代久远,可见其传世老包浆,将此币置于放大镜下可见铜颗粒(黄色)未完全融化之颗粒。而清朝在试制样币时,多采用铜,青铜,镍,铝等合金材料(注:《中国币图说汇考》18页耿爱德著),并提及此币龙尾鳍为9条,火焰珠为7柱。种种细节表明此“奉天一两”为真品无疑,存世罕见。

The Fengtian Mint is currently the oldest mint in China and mainly produces circulating coins, gold and silver commemorative coins. In the 22nd year of Guangxu(1896), the Qing government approved the establishment and construction of the Fengtian Machinery Bureau to cast mechanism silver coins and imported boilers and steam engines from Germany. The entire set of coinage machines. Twenty-three years Guangxu(1897) Fengtian Machinery Bureau was established. From the twenty-sixth year of Guangxu(1900) to the twenty-eighth year(1902), the "Fengtian Machine Bureau" was occupied and destroyed by the Russian army. In the twenty-eighth year of Guangxu(1902), General Sheng Jing negotiated with the Russian side. The party returned the machine bureau to the Fengtian authorities. After that, the machine bureau was separated from the mint and the Fengtian Bureau of Making Silver Dollar was set up to repair the damaged machine., In the twenty-ninth year of Guangxu(1903), production resumed. Due to the shortage of funds on the market and difficulties in turnover, the silver coins cast at this time were no longer yuan, horns, and points, but were based on Kuping, money, points, and cents. For the heavy unit. The famous "Fengtian Province made a treasure trove of Guangxu Yuan Pingyin One or Two" silver coins, commonly known as "Fengtian One or Two", was cast this year, but only a few sample coins were cast at that time, and they were not publicly circulated to the world, so that they have now become rare in the world. Big treasures.
The Qing Dynasty silver coins had different typography at different times. The earliest ones were 7.3, 7.2, one or two, half, 3.6, 1.44, etc.. By the late Qing Dynasty, there were 7.2, 3.6, and 1.44. The later silver coins are more convenient when they are exchanged. One or two silver coins in the early Qing Dynasty were a 45mm version, and the later version was a 43mm version. The conversion time should be after 1903. Among them, the "Fengtian One or Two" silver coin we know was produced in 1903, but its template design was earlier than 1903, and the design design was also based on the early 45mm version. In 1902, the new mold introduced by the Fengtian Mint to repair the machine was a 43-mm version. The diameter of the steel mold on the back of the original design was too large to be used. When the silver coin was trial-produced, the 7.2 version of the old steel mold of other factories was borrowed. This may be the reason why the back of the "Fengtian One or Two" pattern is blurred. Due to the large back pattern of the original 45-mm version, about 31.5 mm in diameter, "FEN-TIEN PROVINCE ONE TAEL" occupies about 4.9 mm in diameter on both sides, and the edge occupies about 2.4 mm. If there is no gap between the patterns, the diameter of 43 mm can be squeezed. Therefore, the expedient use of a seven-dollar two-part version of the back of the steel model instead, so that the produced silver front is more beautiful, but the back of the remaining space is relatively large, it appears to be sparse, not beautiful, not ideal.
The front design of "Fengtian One or Two" is very beautiful, and the height of the font is based on the thickness of the ink when writing. Since the manufacture of the 43-mm version of the silver coin is not beautiful, it will naturally be thought during the coin test whether it can be used on the 39-mm seven-cent page, and the standard seven-dollar two-part template is used on the back, but because the pattern is based on the 45-mm version. Designed, Although the test currency produced is standard on the back, the front is crowded and the edges are incomplete. This is the honor of the collection of the Taiwan Hongxi Art Museum. This coin is currently the highest price of silver coins in China at the world auction.
Therefore, we can know from the above that "Fengtian One or Two" is not an isolated product. It has at least three versions: the 45mm version, the 43mm version, and the 39mm version. Among them, the early 45mm version may only be a sample coin, and the back should be very clear, and the height of the front text design font is based on the thickness of the ink when writing. The silver coin that we appreciate today is the 45mm version of "Fengtian One or Two" cast by the Fengtian Mint in the 29th year of Guangxu. The coin is surrounded by 112 ring points and the front is engraved with "Fengtian Province". Four characters. In the middle, the word "Guangxu Yuanbao" is the word, and the word "<UNK> <UNK>" is left and right(1903 is the year of <UNK> <UNK>). The following is the word "Kuping", and the middle is the word "Guangxu Yuanbao" in Manchu. On the back of the coin, the inner ring of the coin is encircled, and the shape is very large. The four claws are powerful. The visual dragon balls, the outer ring engrave English name "Fengtian Province", there is an old pit on the left side, and there is a mold next to the upper teeth. The impression formed by extrusion, Each side is engraved with one or six flower stars.
[Guangzhouyao] This silver coin is a 45mm version of "Fengtian One or Two". The details are very clear and very beautiful. The frontal body "Guangxu Yuanbao" is designed according to the thickness of ink when writing. Therefore, its pen front and pen stroke can not be simulated. Most of the artifacts we see now are based on commemorative coins issued by the Shenyang Mint Factory. Positive fonts differ from real ones in many details. The word in the back of the "Kwai Yi" is designed as a word that is not in the first place(referring to the Jiangnan word is not in the first place). Because of the long time, it can be seen that the old bag pulp is handed down, and the coin is placed under a magnifying glass to see copper particles(yellow).) Not completely melted particles. In the trial production of the sample currency of the Qing Dynasty, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and other alloy materials were used(Note: "Chinese currency map said Huichao" 18 pages by Gengaide), and it was mentioned that the tail fin of the coin was 9, and the flame bead was 7 columns. Various details show that this "Fengtian one or two" is undoubtedly a true product and is rare in the world.